Blacksmith's work in Ukraine

Production of iron and its treatment by means of hot forging were well-known on the territory of modern Ukraine long before Christ, that was mostly caused by rich reserves of red and brown iron ore and marsh ore in Zakarpattia, Bukovyna, Halychyna, Polissia, Middle Naddniprianshchyna etc.

It was easy to treat marsh ore by the most simple methods. It turns into a thick iron mass (bloom) in a forge at already 700-800 °С. This mass with remains of slag and dross was to be burned again and reforged until iron became clean and acquired necessary properties. So almost every villager could take material to make hacket, hack, spade, plough, nail etc. This is quite laborious matter, so metallurgy was separated into an independent line very early.

The name of the specialty – the blacksmith - became an origin for popular surnames in many countries of the world. These are Ukrainian surnames such as Koval`, Kovalenko, Koval`chuk and English surmane Smith, Deutch Schmidt etc.